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In the 18th century, under the leadership of the Romanov dynasty - an old Russian noble family from which the tsars emerged - Russia, the "giant empire in the east", rose to become a major European power. Peter I. and Katharina II. with their enlightened absolutism made a decisive contribution to this development.

After the Russian Revolution at the beginning of the 20th century, the country became a world power.

German-Russian relations are characterized by numerous conflicts and crises, but also by rapprochement and friendship.